Romans 16. Enjoy the Best of Jesus!

The setting sun behind Mt. Arbel, along the Sea of Galilee. Jesus prayed here with his followers.

Earlier this year, we took a journey together through the Old Testament book of  Isaiah. Paul, as a learned rabbi and the author of the letter to the church at Rome, quoted regularly from the Prophet. So, let’s take the next few weeks together to look at the New Testament book of Romans.

You may play today’s devotional message here. (4:43)

Romans 16.
 
Congratulations! We’ve read through Romans together. So much we have learned about God’s plan for us and His grace. And, about Paul.
 
This is a full chapter of greetings to those in the church at Rome. Almost 30 people. And they are likely from more than one congregation. I’ve wondered about Peter. It seems his name is conspicuously absent? Tradition says he was the first Pope in Rome. But that’s a conversation for another day. I do love that Paul calls out by name many women who love and serve God. I think that’s significant. Think about Paul as a former pharisee. His old tradition would likely not have given much attention to the women of the synagogue. I believe this acknowledgment is evidence of real life transformation in his new walk with the Messiah!
 
He also includes a warning to watch out for those who say they follow the Master, but who’s actions are deceptive. And he affirms their obedient discipleship. They are following his call to spiritual maturity (which we talked about yesterday): I am glad that everyone knows how well you obey the Lord. But still, I want you to understand what is good and not have anything to do with evil. (v19, CEV).
 
My big takeaway from today’s reading: “Enjoy the best of Jesus!” (v20, MSG.) What a great way to conclude a letter!
 
He states again the reason he has written this dispatch. And it is a source of strength for us all:
Praise God! He can make you strong by means of my good news, which is the message about Jesus Christ. For ages and ages this message was kept secret, but now at last it has been told. The eternal God commanded his prophets to write about the good news, so that all nations would obey and have faith. And now, because of Jesus Christ, we can praise the only wise God forever! Amen. (v 25-27, CEV).
 
“Enjoy the best of Jesus!”
What is this Good News? Let’s review the Gospel Message along this Romans Road, a map to our salvation through the pages of this single letter:
 
1. The Human Condition —  We are all sinners.
 

All of us, whether insiders or outsiders, start out in identical conditions, which is to say that we all start out as sinners. Scripture leaves no doubt about it: There’s nobody living right, not even one, nobody who knows the score, nobody alert for God. They’ve all taken the wrong turn; they’ve all wandered down blind alleys. No one’s living right; I can’t find a single one. (Romans 3:9-10, MSG).

“For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.” (Romans 3:23, NIV).
 

Sin pays off with death.  (Romans 6:23a, CEV).

 
2.  We Have Hope — Thanks to Jesus. “But God…”
 
But God’s gift is eternal life given by Jesus Christ our Lord. (Romans 6:23b, CEV).
 
But God showed his great love for us by sending Christ to die for us while we were still sinners. (Romans 5:8, NLT).
 
 
3.  Our Response — Calling Out to Jesus.
 
If you acknowledge publicly with your mouth that Yeshua is Lord and trust in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be delivered. For with the heart one goes on trusting and thus continues toward righteousness, while with the mouth one keeps on making public acknowledgement and thus continues toward deliverance. (Romans 10:9-10, CJB).
 
“Everyone who calls, ‘Help, God!’ gets help.” (Romans 10:13, MSG).
 
 
4. The Result of Salvation — Peace and Grace.
 
By faith we have been made acceptable to God. And now, because of our Lord Jesus Christ, we live at peace with God. (Romans 5:1, CEV).
 
So there is now no condemnation awaiting those who belong to Christ Jesus. For the power of the life-giving Spirit—and this power is mine through Christ Jesus—has freed me from the vicious circle of sin and death. (Romans 8:1-2, NLT).
 
 
It’s our power too!
 
I’ve really appreciated your joining me on this journey. Thank you! Looking back over my journal, I want to go back to Chapter 1 and start it all over again!
 
Enjoy the best of Jesus today!
 
 
(c) 2020. Rich Ronald.
RichlySpeaking.com
 

Romans 10. Salvation is Simple. Really. It is.

Earlier this year, we took a journey together through the Old Testament book of  Isaiah. Paul, as a learned rabbi and the author of the letter to the church at Rome, quoted regularly from the Prophet. So, let’s take the next few weeks together to look at the New Testament book of Romans.

 

You can listen to this devotional here.

Romans 10

Another stop along the Romans Road today. You might recall, there are a number of verses that lead us along the path of salvation in this letter from Paul to the believers in Rome.

The first marker is the Human Condition and that we are all sinners — Romans 3:23 and 6:23.

We then learn that God’s Plan for all of us is the hope we have in Jesus — Romans 5:8.

Today’s signpost is often referred to as the Sinner’s Response.

We always have a choice. Even in this crazy season we’re in right now. We can opt to stay at home on the couch in our sweatpants and eat lots of junk food. Or, we can do things that make a real difference in our world.

 

No one who trusts God

will ever regret it.

What is the faith response after realizing that we need a savior and that Jesus is that Savior? If you declare with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,” and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. (Romans 10:9, NIV). It’s that simple! It’s all about believing it and speaking it.

Have you noticed how many times Paul quotes the Old Testament here in Romans? He certainly knew his Torah!

Scripture reassures us, “No one who trusts God like this – heart and soul – will ever regret it.” (v11, MSG).  I loved this verse even before I looked to see where it was in the Old Testament. Deep in my heart, I trust God. I know I’m His son and He’ll never leave me nor forsake me. I’ve never regretted following Jesus.

But what’s really cool here is the additional layer of the context… Paul quotes Isaiah 28. Here we discover the part of the Trinity that we are trusting is Jesus.  And so the Lord says, “I’m laying a firm foundation for the city of Zion. It’s a valuable cornerstone proven to be trustworthy; no one who trusts it will ever be disappointed. (Isaiah 28:16, CEV).

The Psalmist, Paul, and Peter all mention Isaiah’s Cornerstone. Dig into the ritual of laying a cornerstone at a city gate or a building in the Ancient Days and you discover that the ceremony often included the shedding of blood, a sacrifice. Typically, from a lamb. Jesus, as Zion’s Cornerstone, is a fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophesy! Whoa! Paul affirms here in Romans that because Jesus laid down His life for you and me, we can trust Him! And this is the Cornerstone of the city of Jerusalem!

Men and women will disappoint us and we will disappoint others. But, as we follow Jesus, we will never be disappointed in the selfless Cornerstone!

Continuing our look at today’s signpost along the Roman Road. What is our response to our need for salvation? Paul says it like this:

It’s the word of faith that welcomes God to go to work and set things right for us. This is the core of our preaching. Say the welcoming word to God—“Jesus is my Master”—embracing, body and soul, God’s work of doing in us what he did in raising Jesus from the dead. That’s it. You’re not “doing” anything; you’re simply calling out to God, trusting him to do it for you. That’s salvation. With your whole being you embrace God setting things right, and then you say it, right out loud: “God has set everything right between him and me!” (v9-10, MSG).

And then, the cherry on top, the very simple act of faith, from the prophet Joel: “Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”(v13, NIV. Joel 2:32).

You can see that the Evangelist takes seriously the importance of sharing this Good News. Everyone has a response upon hearing it. But despite Paul’s best efforts, and countless preachers thereafter, not everyone chooses.

You can hear the anguish in the Apostle’s voice at both the outset, and the conclusion of the chapter: Dear friends, my greatest wish and my prayer to God is for the people of Israel to be saved.” (v1, CEV).

And Isaiah said about the people of Israel, “All day long the Lord has reached out to people who are stubborn and refuse to obey.” (v21, CEV. Isaiah 65:2).

It’s no wonder Jesus regularly said, “He who has ears to hear, let him hear.”  (Matthew 11:15 is the first of six times).

 

© 2020. Rich Ronald.
RichlySpeaking.com

Romans 1. Who Are You and What Are You Doing?

Earlier this year, we took a journey together through the Old Testament book of  Isaiah. Paul, as a learned rabbi and the author of the letter to the church at Rome, quoted regularly from the Prophet. So, let’s take the next few weeks together to look at the New Testament book of Romans.

Right off the top, we see that Paul calls himself a “devoted slave on assignment.” (Romans 1:1, MSG). And it immediately causes me to ask myself two questions: 1) Am I a devoted slave? and 2) What is my assignment? We could certainly drop anchor before the ship even leaves the harbor to ponder these two thoughts.

It’s been said that we are all a slave to something or someone. That can be a good thing, right? If we are bound by healthy habits our assignment might be exercising and eating well-balanced meals. On the other hand, if we are controlled by a TV craving, we might binge-watch our favorite situation comedy until the wee hours of the morning, thus negatively altering our work performance the next day.


Jesus is worth following is because He chose us to give us His grace and the eternal life that comes with it.

 


What if, like Paul, our days were structured around a life disciplined by Jesus? What if we awoke each morning with the inclination on our lips and heart to prioritize God’s to-do list over our own?

Why would Paul do this? Why would we?

“Through him, we received both the generous gift of his life and the urgent task of passing it on to others who receive it by entering into obedient trust in Jesus.” (Romans 1:5, MSG).

Paul assures us that the only reason Jesus is worth following is because He chose us to give us His grace and the eternal life that comes with it. He has chosen us! He has given us grace! He has presented us with life! As we fully embrace this blessing and calling,  might it be relatively easy to accomplish the assignment of telling others about Him?  What if we shared this truth with our friends and family: “You are who you are through this gift and call of Jesus Christ!” (Romans 1:6, MSG).

What a great promise to view through the lens of God’s affection for everyone! You are who you are, I am who I am, through the gift of grace — God’s abundant and unconditional love.

It’s no wonder we see the passion light up Paul’s face as he exclaims:

“And that’s why I can’t wait to get to you in Rome, preaching this wonderful good news of God. It’s news I’m most proud to proclaim, this extraordinary Message of God’s powerful plan to rescue everyone who trusts him, starting with Jews and then right on to everyone else! God’s way of putting people right shows up in the acts of faith, confirming what Scripture has said all along: “The person in right standing before God by trusting him really lives.”” (Romans 1:15-17, MSG).

This Good News is extraordinary! Isn’t it worth sharing? Isn’t it worth structuring our days around and committing our lives to?  While our salvation is not earned by completing our God-given assignments, Paul writes to another church: “God planned for us to do good things and to live as he has always wanted us to live. That’s why he sent Christ to make us what we are.” (Ephesians 2:10, CEV).

May God fill you with His strength and joy and grace today as you seek to serve Him by accomplishing the assignments He has for you.

 

(c) 2020. Rich Ronald.

 

Isaiah 65. Blessings Abound for the Chosen — Us!

Because of the importance of Israel and its people, and my personal love for The Land, I’m inviting you to join me through the key Old Testament book of Isaiah.  Each day I’m posting some simple thoughts about this complex prophet.

Isaiah 65.

Bad news for the sinner — that’s us.

Good news for the chosen ones — that’s us too!

“I, the LORD, will make them pay for their sins and for those of their ancestors… they have disgraced me by burning incense (to idols) on mountains.” (v7, CEV). God calls out those who do religious things just to be religious. For those sins they will have to pay. And, we’re in that category, too, right? Because as Paul notes: “All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.” (Romans 3:23). And that’s precisely why Jesus had to come and had to pay the price for everyone’s sin. Even those whom God is addressing here in Isaiah 65.

But, good news! “I won’t destroy everyone.” (v8, CEV).

“I am God! I can be trusted. Your past troubles are gone; I no longer think of them. I am creating new heavens and a new earth. Everything of the past will be forgotten.” (v16-17, CEV).

God CAN be trusted. I love that He, infinite God that He is, forgets our past when we confess our sin and trust in Jesus. And, even though He forgets our past, He doesn’t forget the pain we may have suffered or the heart-ache we might have endured. His love and grace wrap around us like a comfortable blanket.

Look how Paul says the same thing: “Anyone who belongs to Christ is a new person. The past is forgotten, and everything is new.” (1 Cor. 5:17, CEV). We are chosen because Jesus went to the Cross, and rose again, on our behalf.

Isaiah concludes this chapter with blessings that abound for the chosen ones:

“My people will live long lives and in their own homes.”

“My people will harvest and enjoy their own crops.”

“Your work won’t be wasted.”

“Your children and grandchildren will be blessed.”

“I will answer their prayers before they finish praying.” (parts of v21-24, CEV).

Don’t you just love that? He will answer our prayers even before we finish offering them! What great promises are in store for us, because we are chosen! We are chosen only because of the grace and love of Jesus:

But God was merciful! We were dead because of our sins, but God loved us so much that he made us alive with Christ, and God’s wonderful kindness is what saves you. God raised us from death to life with Christ Jesus, and he has given us a place beside Christ in heaven.  God did this so that in the future world he could show how truly good and kind He is to us because of what Christ Jesus has done. You were saved by faith in God, who treats us much better than we deserve. This is God’s gift to you, and not anything you have done on your own.” (Ephesians 2:4-8, CEV).

Can we thank Him for His good gifts to us… the blessings we are promised in Isaiah and receive through Jesus, the Messiah?

If you’re new to this journey through Isaiah, you can start here.
(c) 2020. Rich Ronald.

Isaiah 52. How Lovely on the Mountains…

Because of the importance of Israel and its people, and my personal love for The Land, I’m inviting you to join me through the key Old Testament book of Isaiah.  Each day I’m posting some simple thoughts about this complex prophet.

Isaiah 52.

It has all come down to this! Today is the day!

“Now it’s time that my people will know who I am, what I’m made of. Yes, that I have something to say. Here I am!” (v6, MSG).

Here it is. Now is the time. How exciting! Can you imagine waiting for years and years for something to happen? Have you ever planned a big event then had to wait until the great reveal, the graduation, the wedding, the new job, the finished home? We all have, right? To the people of Israel God says, “Now is the time!”

What is it?

“How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of the messenger bringing good news. Breaking news that all is well, proclaiming good times. Announcing SALVATION, telling Zion “YOUR GOD REIGNS!” (v7, MSG).

The Lord had redeemed His people. He is redeeming His people still! Including you and me!

He leads us at the front of the line and protects us from the back as well… our leader and our rear guard! (v12).

And then the culmination of this good news? The servant, His servant will suffer… suffer so badly that “he no longer looked human.” (v14, CEV).

But then… then… here it is… here’s the good news: “The nations will be amazed at Him… King’s will bow in wonder! They will see and they will finally understand! (v15).

Yes, we who are fortunate to live during the post-resurrection time period understand! Jesus is the One who suffered. He is the One who redeems! He is the One who rose from the dead!

He brings the Good News. He is the Good News. He is our Good News!

 

If you’re new to this journey through Isaiah, you can start here.

(c) 2020. Rich Ronald.

While shepherds watched their flocks at night.

shepherd
The shepherds’ encounter with Jesus began just like every other day. They were nearby, working as they do — all day and all night. They were going about their ordinary life. And into one average night angels appeared with Good News of great joy! “Today, in the town of David, a Savior has been born to you; he is the Messiah, the Lord.” Luke 2:11

 

It was just another night, really. Nothing too special about it. The sheep were grazing or sleeping on the rolling meadow, just north of Bethlehem. The air was cool, but not cold yet, so we let the animals continue to stay out in the fields rather than finding a cave for shelter.

My name? It’s not really important, for I am a lowly shepherd. There are none in all of the Land of Judah that think of our people as anyone special. We do not command much attention and merely go about our work in a quiet, nondescript manner. We feed the sheep and goats. We water the sheep and goats. We guard the sheep and goats. We move them about so they will find plenty of grass to eat and just the right amount to drink. And this we do day in and day out.

I’m almost 60 years old and shepherding is the only job I have ever had. I know my sheep, and they know me. As of today, I have 109 sheep in my flock: 32 rams, 41 ewes, and 36 lambs. There are another 88 goats. Everything I own is in a pack on my donkey. It’s not much. Another tunic. Some candles and pottery. A few ropes and animal skins. A small bag of nuts and raisins.  Oh, and my flute.  I so enjoy the gift God has given me to play music. It is a joy to worship the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob all while simply blowing across hole in a hollowed out piece of wood. I think the sheep like it as well.

My brother has his flock just over there. My brother-in-law is along that ridge.

So, about “that” night… The air was crisp. The moon was full. The sky bursting with bright stars. We had just thrown another log on a small fire. We kept watch for coyotes, for this is the time of the year when they prey on the members of our flock. We were talking about heading back to our village and meeting up with our families as it was the season to go up to Jerusalem to celebrate the Feast. Of course, we do not ever get to go to the Temple, for we must be out here. But some in our family are blessed to be able to make the short journey to Mt. Zion.

We were making our plans when suddenly the night sky became very bright, as if it was the middle of the day. The sheep were startled and began to cry and low and move about anxiously. The three of us, did our best to keep them calm, all the while our hearts raced frantically. We had never seen this happen before. We had heard of earthquakes but had not experienced one. Was this that? Or some other natural phenomenon?  Was this some sort of army moving across the plains? The dogs were barking, the sheep bleating, the donkey braying. We were terribly frightened.

Through the bright light a man appeared… a man like we had not ever seen previously. His first words? “Do not be afraid!” And yet we were terrified!  It was truly a challenge to slow our heart rate and calm our breathing.

He said he was a messenger bringing good news, joyful news. Our Savior was born this very night and we were to go quickly down to the village of Bethlehem and see this new baby. A baby? Our Messiah? What was he saying? Who was this man? While he didn’t tell us he was an angel, we quickly figured that out when a multitude of others joined him and they started singing. Singing! Right out there in the open fields! And proclaiming the birth of our Savior.

“Glory to God!” they sang. “Peace on earth!” echoed across the valley, amplified by the night air.

We asked each other: Who were we to hear this message? We are not priests or rabbis or Pharisees or King Herod. Maybe they should go and proclaim this news to people of stature?

And just as quickly as they appeared, they returned again into the heavens.

So, of course, we did what they told us to do. We gathered our things; rounded up the flocks. And we ventured across the meadow in the middle of the night, down the rocky path to the village of Bethlehem. We looked and searched all over town. Can you see us? With our sheep? And our goats? And our donkeys? And the shepherding dogs? Oh, what noise we made as we meandered through the village in the middle of the night.

A man named Jacob came to greet us. He asked what we were doing wandering around? We told him of the angels and the singing and the bright lights in the sky.  We shared the message of good news they had shared with us. He was stunned and had this look on his face I’ll never forget. It was a look of disbelief and belief all at the same time… like something very real and very special just dawned on him.  With an eager jump in his step he led us to a small, dark, dank cave. He apologized as he motioned for us to enter.  Inside were a few animals and a woman, who he said was his wife, lying in some straw. Her face was illuminated by a single candle. And she nursed a new born baby.

“Miriam!” he whispered with enthusiasm.  “These men… they saw angels who told them to come find us… to find him… our son.”

We looked at each other with doubt in our eyes. Is this our Messiah? Our king? The savior of the world? But wouldn’t he be born in a royal palace attended to by a multitude of nurses and midwives and servants? Wouldn’t he be wrapped in silk or fine linens, not these swaddling rags?

Jacob could read our thoughts as our faces betrayed our skepticism. “He was born in this simple cave,” he said with humble honesty, “because he was born for you.”

“But we are lowly shepherds,” we explained. “And he is a king?”

“Yes,” Jacob replied. “Yes, indeed. He has been born for you and for them. You, however, you are the first to see Him. His name is ‘Immanuel. God with us.’ Go! Go tell everyone you see what a great thing God has done for all of us.”

And so, we did. Our suspicions turned to great joy. We returned to the fields and we praised the God of our Fathers … for the angels, for Jacob, for Miriam, but mostly for this baby, our Savior, born this very night!

 

Some of the actions, words and thoughts, perhaps, of the shepherds and others as found in Luke, Chapter 2.

 (c) 2016. Rich Ronald.

First Person: Gabriel Visits Miriam

Mary (Miriam): "May it be as you have said!"
“I am the Lord’s servant,” she said. “And I am willing to do whatever He wants. May everything you said come true.” (Image from Zondervan.)

Throughout Advent, let’s look at the people of the story of Christ’s birth. This week: Gabriel. Here is my take on a possible first person narrative from Luke 1.

I love my work. I truly do. I am a messenger who brings Good News to people. I am God’s mouthpiece. Yes, I stand in the presence of God Himself. He speaks to me. He gives me messages to deliver. Many years ago I spoke to Daniel and explained a dream to the prophet. Interesting that the vision he had then ties directly to our time now.

Just a few months ago the Almighty sent me to Elizabeth’s husband, Zacharias. That was an interesting exchange. Here’s this man, a priest, holy in actions and respected by both God and man… He is ministering in the inner part of the sanctuary… I appear from the altar of incense. He was a bit frightened but I brought a message of incredible news, good news:

“Don’t be afraid, Zacharias!” I told him. “For I have come to tell you that God has heard your prayer, and your wife, Elizabeth, will bear you a son! And you are to name him John.”

God told me to let Zacharias know that both he and Elizabeth would be filled great joy and gladness at this son’s birth, and many will rejoice with them. Both Zacharias and his wife were old, but this son would be one of the Lord’s great men. I told him that this baby would be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from before his birth!

Can you see him? He stood there next to the Ark of the Covenant and just stared at me. I continued to speak of the encouraging future God had for this son. “He will persuade many a Jew to turn to the Lord his God,” I told him. “And he will be a man of rugged spirit and power like Elijah, the prophet of old; and he will precede the coming of the Messiah, preparing the people for his arrival. He will soften adult hearts to become like little children’s, and will change disobedient minds to the wisdom of faith.”

Such news, eh? Who wouldn’t welcome this great plan from God Almighty? And yet this man, Zacharias, didn’t believe it! He didn’t believe me. Clearly just my presence with him in the Holy of Holies was miraculous. But he stammered on about how old he was… and his wife…

Didn’t he recall the stories of Abraham and Sarah? Or Elkanah and Hannah. Or Isaac and Rebekah? No, I guess not. But hadn’t he been praying for a son? Yet he doubted.  I just couldn’t believe that he didn’t believe. You could say the hair on the back of my neck stood up.

So, do you know what I said next? i raise my voice.  “I am Gabriel! I stand in the very presence of God. It was He who sent me to you with this good news!  And now, because you haven’t believed me, you are to be stricken silent, unable to speak until the child is born. For my words will certainly come true at the proper time.”

You know, sometimes you have to take some pretty radical steps to get some people’s attention.

Ah, but not Mary. Not Mary.

Every time the Almighty has sent me to speak directly to His children I have to say “Don’t be afraid!” right at the start. Every time . Except one. Miriam. You know her as Mary. She wasn’t like Zacharias. She wasn’t like Daniel. Such a sweet girl. Such love for God she has. Yes, she was a little confused at my message, and I had to explain a few things to the young woman, but she believed it… because she believed God.

You haven’t heard the message? Oh my, well, I’m sure she wouldn’t mind my repeating it for you. Here’s what I said:

“God has decided to wonderfully bless you, Miriam!  Very soon now, you will become pregnant and have a baby boy, and you are to name him ‘Jesus.’ He shall be very great and shall be called the Son of God. And the Lord God shall give him the throne of his ancestor David. And he shall reign over Israel forever; his Kingdom shall never end!”

Here’s the confusing part. She asked how this was going to be, because she and her fiance’ Jacob, you know him as Joseph, had rightfully never been together. “How can I have a baby?” She asked me. “I am a virgin.”

This is the part I had to explain… and even I didn’t understand the message the Almighty had given me to give to her. I told her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of God shall overshadow you.”

Listen to this… this is what is so amazing about Jehovah.  God’s plan was this way so the baby born to sweet Miriam, Mary, would be completely holy, the Son of God.

I then mentioned that her Cousin Elizabeth was with child and I assured her that “every promise from God shall surely come true.”

And here’s the best part of the whole mission: her response.  I had just told her some pretty remarkable news… in fact, impossible news. More impossible than the news I had delivered to Zacharias, really.  And what was her reply? Oh, this delightful child is wise beyond her years.  “I am the Lord’s servant,” she said. “And I am willing to do whatever He wants. May everything you said come true.”

May everything be as I had said! Her world was about to be totally flipped upside down. And she was ready and willing! Can you believe that? How old was this girl? 14-15? What trust! What obedience!

She was willing to say “Be born in me!”  Despite the mystery of how God was going to be a baby… or how the One who birthed the stars in the sky was allowing himself to now be birthed by this young girl.

She trusts that God knows what He’s doing. His invitation is for everyone. He will soon be here! His invitation isn’t just for Miriam. It’s for all of you. It’s His great love, reaching down to save the world.

(c) 2103. Rich Ronald.